In comparison to brick or stone walls live fences require regular maintenance to keep it looking great but this fences if well maintained and the right plants used for the fence it can give very beautiful scenery compared to stone walls.

One can set up a wire mesh or a half built stone wall with metallic grills use climbers like passion flower, flame vine or English ivy.

One can use kei-apple and cypress trees closely planted for ever green high hedges. For low hedges use either croton/Joseph’s court.

Alternatively if you prefer a stonewall you can cover it with climbers and it will still look like a live fence.


Due to modernization and civilization land has been divided into small plots especially in urban centers people have ended up living in apartments with limited or no land at all. Let this not be a reason for you not to have your own vegetable garden and having the pleasure of beautiful indoor plants glazing your patios, balcony, and kitchen window seals. Here are some ways you can have this done

Bag culture

If the backyard of your home is not big enough try out bag culture. Make a planting media using the right proportions including one like sand or aggregate that will help create proper aeration in the media. Fill the bag or bags with the media. One can make holes on the sides to plant the seedlings. Plastic sack bags are most suitable but also other plastic bags can be used if perforated. You can plant spring onions, kales, spinach, herbs, tomatoes and lettuce in this bag.Dont forget to inco-operate manure or nitrogenous fertilizers indoor to get a good lush from vegetables.

Trough culture

You can get ready made troughs plastic, wooden, clay or concrete. This can come in different shapes and sizes or even you can build boxes from wooden planks. If not one can recycle containers and use them to plant vegetables and indoor plants. You can be more creative cover the containers with colorful papers or paint them artistically. Plant herbs like white oregano, basil herb, rosemary into this containers place them in places where there is at least enough sunlight for proper establishment for example a window seal. Fresh herbs are suitable for cooking, garninshing and in salads so I would highly recommend this as it would save on your income and put food on your table.

Both of this are methods that are environmentally friendly especially when we use recycled containers and bags


Herbaceous plants are a large group of horticultural plants that can be divided in many sub-groups.They are ornamental plants that have that have been grown since the antiquity.  They were very popular in Victorian England among Stately Gardens but their wide use declined with the influence of industrial revolution, particularly during the period of pre-world wars.

Popularity in herbaceous plants has re surged in the last 40 years or so with rapid expansion in urban settlement and increase in wealth among the ordinary citizenry in the Western industrial countries.Herbaceous plants are non-woody flowering plants that were traditionally grown in outdoor flower bed gardens hence the term bedding plant that is commonly applied to this group.

They were also used in border planting and the term herbaceous border is widely used to apply to the group as well.

Reason for increased popularity

1)      Change in taste for ornamental plants by the public demands more colorful plants in landscapes

2)      Plants are flexible and fit in many situations: ground beds, planters in busy shopping malls and open spaces in cities, in pots and hanging baskets

3)      Improvement in production systems e.g. plug system and tray cell packs which have advantages of reduced cost of production also they provide enhanced convenience in consumer handling

4)      Aggressive marketing aimed at meeting consumer requirements with outlets in super markets, retail and florist shops as well as garden centers; Some producers sell directly to home consumers

5)      Many new exciting cvs are being released every year

Herbaceous flower can be distinctly classified in two/three groups.

Annuals – those grown and flower within 1 yr (season);they are low growing flowers that are finding wide application among this group.The term BEDDING plants is almost synonymous with annual herbaceous plants

Perennials – those which grow for one or two years before they start to flowering and may continue to flower for three or more years, some perennials flowers grow up to 10 or more years.  They are most showy in border planting.

Biennial herbaceous-Distinct group that does well under temperate conditions.Go through a two years cycle

Under tropics they grow as annuals or weak perennials.

Some nurserymen may use the term bedding plants to apply to herbaceous perennial crops that are started from seed.

  • Early production culture similar.
  •  The term bedding plants may even include ground cover plants (especially flowering types) and also include:

–          Herbaceous

–           Containers ( flowering pot plants)

–          Hanging baskets

–           Window-box plants

  •  It is important to note certain non wood plants treated distinctly from herbaceous plants

–          bulbous plants

–          succulents

–          water plants

–          hanging basket plants

–          foliage plants for indoors decoration

These groups though non-woody are not considered as herbaceous plants.

Establishment of herbaceous plants in a landscape

  1. Herbaceous plants

–   Annuals, perennials (and biennials not quite marked in Tropics)

–   Herbaceous include bulbous plants

def;  plants which develop ground structures for storage and regeneration.  They are able to undergo adverse climatic conditions and are survived by bulbous structures.

–   bulbs, corms, tubers, tuberous roots and rhizomes.

–  Herbaceous plants may also include ground covers.

–   Specially treated as alternative planting to large grasses for lawn.

·        Herbaceous plants

–  majority are flowering plants

–  and are grown in locations where flowers are enjoyed.

Herbaceous plants have a wide application.

1)   Outdoor planting

–  flower beds

–  bedding plants – annuals

–  border planting   perennials

–  mixed border planting -combines perennials and annuals (filler) plus groundcovers and small shrubs.

2)   Many are planted as pot plants as well as hanging baskets

–          perhaps this has been responsible for increased production and consumption of herbaceous flowering and foliage plants.

These plants are produced in nurseries.

–          most of which have specialized in their production systems.

–          large operation fertizer types.

They are produced under various categories referred to -. Product type:

  1. Seedlings for bedding planting .
  2.  –  flats/tray cells
  3.  –  plug trays for transplanting
  4.   peat pots

SAGO PALM cycas revoluta

Cycad aulacaspis scale (CAS)   

This scale is also referred to as the Asian cycad scale.

They are armored scale insects that   colonize every part of the plant, including roots and are free from the natural enemies that keep population under control in its native habitat. Therefore, its populations can increase rapidly in just a few days.  Even when scales are controlled in the plant foliage CAS can quickly re-infest plants from root populations. Root infestations are difficult to detect.


CAS causes damage by sucking plant fluids. Initial symptoms of infestation include small yellow spots on the upper surface of fronds.  As the infestation progresses, fronds become brown and desiccated


Integrated pest management (IPM) there is No single control alternative.

  • Prevent pest problems: Check new plants before purchase or prior to installation.
  • ·         Detect infestations quickly and monitor pest populations:
  • Act quickly and use effective control tools: The CAS has overlapping generations therefore increase rapidly.
  • Cultural control. Avoid plant crowding to reduce movement of scale crawlers. Pruned plant parts must be disposed of properly and tools used for pruning must be cleaned.
  • Chemical control.   Contact foliar sprays such as horticultural oils and insecticidal soaps require 2 to 3 applications (5 to 10 days apart).  Systemic insecticides usually are more effective when applied as soil drenches.
  • Biological control: Two natural enemies, a predaceous beetle, Cybocephalus binotatus Grouvelle, and a parasitic wasp, Coccobius fulvus